Click Here to go back to How Does It Work? (Cellular Biology: Microtubules and M-State Elements)


The Quantum Mechanics of Consciousness


a7r54(B)How are extremely complex molecular events coordinated with the precision and elegance needed to sustain entire organisms, let alone consciousness? It has been a big mystery to science for a long time, but the evidence showing that deficiencies in specific trace minerals can lead to cellular and genetic degradation is a vital clue in the quest to discover the answer. Many amazing and astonishing breakthroughs have been made in just the past 30 years tying together research done by physicists and biologists in the past century to answer big questions, such as: What IS consciousness and HOW is it possible?


Read more about the quantum mechanics of microtubules:


In the quantum brain model, tubulin is thought to act as a qubit in this quantum supercomputer we call the brain. Microtubules are thought to play instrumental roles in the Orchestra of Objective Reduction.




“In their controversial Orch-OR theory of consciousness, Roger Penrose and Stuart Hameroff postulate that microtubules in neurons conduct quantum-level manipulations of matter, which produces consciousness, based partially on some observations of Gamma Synchrony that indicate that information may propagate through the brain much faster than a chemically mediated neural network would physically permit…”




“In addition to the synaptic connections between brain cells, gap junctions are a different category of connections, where the gap between the cells is sufficiently small for quantum objects to cross it by means of a process known as quantum tunneling. Hameroff proposes that this tunneling allows a quantum object to extend across a large area of the brain as a single quantum object.”


More on gap junctions:





Some background information on nerve synapses:




The theory of quantum consciousness is backed by highly intelligent and reputable people in the scientific community.


Sir Roger Penrose OM FRS is an English mathematical physicist, recreational mathematician and philosopher. He is the Emeritus Rouse Ball Professor of Mathematics at the Mathematical Institute of the University of Oxford, as well as an Emeritus Fellow of Wadham College.


Penrose is internationally renowned for his scientific work in mathematical physics, in particular for his contributions to general relativity and cosmology. He has received a number of prizes and awards, including the 1988 Wolf Price for physics, which he shared with Stephen Hawking for their contribution to our understanding of the universe.


Read more about the astonishing quantum non-locality of consciousness, also known as Penrose and Hameroff’s theory of Orchestrated Objective Reduction:



Stuart Hameroff works for the Departments of Anesthesiology and Psychology, Center for Consciousness Studies at The University of Arizona in Tucson. Read Hameroff’s extremely fascinating paper on “Consciousness, Neurobiology, and Quantum Mechanics: The Case for a Connection”:



Nancy J. Woolf has a Ph. D. in Neuroscience from UCLA School of Medicine, a B.S. in Psychobiology from UCLA Department of Psychology, and works at the Department of Psychology at the University of California. Read about nanoscale structures in the Central Nervous System and the participation of those structures in higher cognition at Nancy J. Woolf’s website:





Limits of Electrochemical Impulses


dna-mtps(B)Most of us don’t know how it is even possible that a signal can move from one end of a cell to the other. What truly boggles the mind is how signals can move across the the brain or even the whole body, nearly instantaneously. To understand how quickly the signals need to move, we must consider how deeply and intricately woven these structures are within us. These microtubules are webs of channels in every cell of the body and are responsible for getting each and every enzyme, chemical, and signal where it needs to go. And these channels connect directly to each site on every cell. We do know that molecules and enzymes are matter, so they can only move as quickly as physical biology allows, but what about nerve impulses? How can an electrochemical/electrosynaptic network possibly transmit signals between neurons fast enough to allow for split-second eye-brain-hand coordination?



It can’t.


According to conventional neurophysiology, nerve conduction velocity is between 0.5 and 120 meters per second, depending on the type of nerve cell. Scientists have estimated that, to perform the calculations necessary to accomplish the lightning-quick reflexes of a world-class table tennis athlete, average nerve impulse speed would need to be closer to the speed of sound (~343 meters per second). Even extrafusal muscle fiber, the fastest type of nerve cell (with a conduction velocity of up to 120 meters per second), is 60% short of the speed required to pull this off. Neurons used for thought processes transmit information at only 30 meters per second, tops. The central nervous system is simply too slow to calculate trajectories and control responses in the complex hierarchy of processing stages using electrochemical impulses alone.


“Depending on the type of fiber, the neural impulse travels at speed ranging from a sluggish 2 miles per hour to, in some myelinated fibers, a breackneck 200 or more miles per hour. But even this top speed is 3 million times slower than the speed of electricity through a wire.” ~David G. Meyers, Psychology 4th Edition


At this point, it is relevant to point out that electricity is propagated by the electromagnetic field at close to the speed of light. However, when electrons are flowing through a superconductor, they condense into a paired state and form phonon waves that propagate closer to the speed of sound. In other words, light passes through a superconductor at the speed of sound. To comprehend the connection between consciousness and m-state elements, it is important to understand the physics of superconductivity. For the curious or technically-minded individual, we will cover this in the next section…


Above image adapted from the article “Are Human Beings Really Made of Light?”:



Click Here to read about The Physics of Superconductivity Webutation